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As a Tor user, you may authenticate yourself directly in the Tor Browser. In order to access this service, you will need access credentials from the onion service operator. When accessing an authenticated onion service, Tor Browser will show in the URL bar an icon of a little gray key, accompanied by a tooltip. Enter your valid private key into the input field. Errors can happen in different layers: client errors, network errors or service errors. Some of these errors can be fixed by following the Troubleshooting section.
The table below shows all the possible errors and which action you should take to solve the issue. If you cannot reach the onion service you requested, make sure that you have entered the onion address correctly: even a small mistake will stop Tor Browser from being able to reach the site. If you are still unable to connect to the onion service after verifying the address, please try again later. There may be a temporary connection issue, or the site operators may have allowed it to go offline without warning.
If the onion service you are trying to access consists of a string of 16 characters V2 format , this type of address is being deprecated. Download Tor Browser to experience real private browsing without tracking, surveillance, or censorship. To advance human rights and freedoms by creating and deploying free and open source anonymity and privacy technologies, supporting their unrestricted availability and use, and furthering their scientific and popular understanding.
Sign up. Trademark, copyright notices, and rules for use by third parties can be found in our FAQ. All traffic between Tor users and onion services is end-to-end encrypted, so you do not need to worry about connecting over HTTPS. The address of an onion service is automatically generated, so the operators do not need to purchase a domain name; the.
Contact the onion site administrator. The HiddenServiceDir line specifies the directory which should contain information and cryptographic keys for your onion service. The HiddenServicePort line specifies a virtual port that is, the port that people visiting your onion service will be using , and in the above case it says that any traffic incoming to port 80 of your onion service should be redirected to Tip: A good practice to avoid leaking an onion service to a local network is to run onion services over Unix sockets instead of a TCP socket.
You will need to edit and put the following two lines in your torrc file:. If Tor starts up again, great. Otherwise, something is wrong. First look at your logfiles for hints. It will print some warnings or error messages. That should give you an idea of what went wrong. When Tor starts, it will automatically create the HiddenServiceDir that you specified if necessary.
Make sure this is the case. Now to get your onion service address, go to your HiddenServiceDir directory, and find a file named hostname. The hostname file in your onion service configuration directory contains the hostname for your new onion v3 service.
The other files are your onion service keys, so it is imperative that these are kept private. If your keys leak, other people can impersonate your onion service, deeming it compromised, useless, and dangerous to visit. Now you can connect to your onion service using Tor Browser, and you should get the html page you setup back in Step 1.
It is important to note that an onion service configured like this will be readable by anybody who knows or discovers the address. You can make onion services require authentication, and only users with a private key will access the service. Read more about Client authorization documentation. If you want to forward multiple virtual ports for a single onion service, just add more HiddenServicePort lines. If you want to run multiple onion services from the same Tor client, just add another HiddenServiceDir line.
For example, in Nginx and using Tor with Unix sockets, the configuration would look like this:. The default version of onion services is version 3 and it has 56 characters long. Onion services version 2 is being deprecated and will be retired soon from the Tor network, after 0. Please read the blog post Onion Service version deprecation timeline for more information. Some onion site operators may not want to disclose their onion service location.
That is not an easy task, and these resources will help on how to make this possible:. Now that you have an onion site working, you may want to deploy Onion-Location , or use tools like Docker, Heroku , Terraform , Ansible or stem to automate the management of your onion services. If you have a static website, but never installed Nginx or Apache, another project to try is OnionShare , where running an onion site will be easier: guided with a graphic interface and with minimal configuration.